It is the wish of every expectant mother to give birth to a healthy, lively, and intelligent baby. Pregnancy check-up is not only a guarantee of good health and good health, but also a necessary condition for being responsible for yourself and your baby. There are many pregnancy test items, each of which is important, but doctors may not have time to explain each report to you. Today, Doudehui will give you a comprehensive analysis of 15 pregnancy test items, so that you can quickly learn how to understand the report! ■ Routine blood examination items: hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells, etc. It is mainly used to determine whether the expectant mother is anemic. The normal value of female hemoglobin is 110g/L~150g/L. Mild anemia has little impact on expectant mothers and childbirth, while severe anemia can cause adverse consequences such as premature birth and low-birth-weight babies. Understand the examination report. White blood cells play a role in destroying pathogens in the body and protecting health. The normal value is 4~10×109/L. If it exceeds this range, it indicates the possibility of infection, but it can increase slightly during pregnancy. Platelets play an important role in the process of hemostasis. The normal value is 100~300×1012/L. If the platelets are lower than 100×1012/L, it will affect the coagulation function of the expectant mother. ■ Routine urine examination items: protein, sugar and ketone bodies in urine, microscopic examination of red blood cells and white blood cells, etc. Under normal circumstances, the above indicators are negative. Understand the test report. If the protein is positive, it indicates the possibility of pregnancy-induced hypertension and kidney disease. If sugar or ketone bodies are positive, it indicates the possibility of diabetes and further examination is required. If red blood cells and white blood cells are found, it indicates the possibility of urinary tract infection, which requires attention. If accompanied by symptoms such as frequent urination and urgency, timely treatment is required. ■ Liver and kidney function test items: glutamic oxaline aminotransferase (GPT), glutamic oxal aminotransferase (GOT), urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), etc. These are mainly to check whether the expectant mother has hepatitis, nephritis and other diseases. The burden on the liver and kidneys increases during pregnancy. If the above indicators exceed the normal range, it indicates that the liver and kidney function are not normal, and pregnancy will make the original disease \”worse\”. Understand the examination report. Normal values of liver function: alanine aminotransferase 0~55 U/L; aspartate aminotransferase 0~55 U/L. Normal values of kidney function: urea nitrogen 9~20 mg/dl; creatinine 0.5~1.1 mg/dl ■ Blood type Checkup items: (1) ABO blood type; (2) Rh blood type. Check your blood type in preparation for blood transfusion during delivery. It is important for expectant mothers to know their blood type. If the expectant father has type A, B or AB blood and the expectant mother has type O blood, the baby may have ABO hemolysis. Among Asians, there are fewer Rh blood type negatives and most are Rh blood type positive. If the Rh blood types of men and women are incompatible, hemolysis may also occur in the baby. If the expectant mother is Rh-negative, the hospital must prepare Rh-negative blood before giving birth. If an accident occurs during delivery, blood can be transfused in time. ■ Syphilis serology test items: (1) Treponema antibody hemagglutination test (TPHA); (2) Rapid plasma reagin test (RPR). Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. If the expectant mother has syphilisIt can be passed directly to the fetus through the placenta, which may cause congenital syphilis in newborns. Understand the examination report. For normal expectant mothers, the results of both tests are negative. When the body is infected with Treponema pallidum, it will produce two types of antibodies, which are RPR positive and TPHA positive. The specificity of a positive RPR is not high and may be affected by other diseases, resulting in false positives. A positive TPHA can be used as a diagnostic test for syphilis. ■ AIDS serology test items: AIDS (HIV) antibodies. AIDS is the literal translation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is a severe immune deficiency disease whose causative agent is the HIV virus. Normal expectant mothers are negative for HIV antibodies. Understand the test report. If you are infected with the HIV virus, the result is positive. HIV virus can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta, causing HIV infection in newborns. ■ Gonorrhea bacteriological examination items: gonococcal culture. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by diplococcus gonorrhoeae. It is transmitted directly through unclean sexual intercourse. It can also be transmitted through gonorrhea-contaminated clothing, bedpans, instruments, etc. It can also be transmitted to newborns through the birth canal of the affected mother. To understand the examination report, the cervical secretions of the expectant mother are usually taken for gonococcal culture. The culture result of normal pregnant women is negative. If it is positive, it means there is gonococcal infection and needs timely treatment. ■ Hepatitis B (HBV) virological examination examination items: hepatitis B virus antigen and antibody. Among viral hepatitis, hepatitis B has the highest incidence rate. Early pregnancy reactions can be aggravated in early pregnancy and can easily develop into acute severe hepatitis, which is life-threatening. Hepatitis B virus can infect the fetus through the placenta, and the probability of mother-to-child transmission reaches more than 90%. Understand the examination report. All indicators of normal expectant mothers are negative. If the simple hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) is positive, it means that you have been infected with hepatitis B virus before, have recovered, and have immunity to hepatitis B virus. If other indicators (HBsAg, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb IgG, HBcAb IgM) are positive, attention needs to be paid, indicating that the virus is currently contagious, and a doctor should be consulted. ■ Hepatitis C (HCV) virus test items: Hepatitis C (HCV) antibody. Hepatitis C virus is the causative agent of hepatitis C. 75% of patients are asymptomatic, and only 25% of patients have fever, vomiting, diarrhea, etc. Hepatitis C virus can also be passed to the fetus through the placenta. Understand the test report. A normal test result for expectant mothers is negative. If it is positive, it means hepatitis C virus infection, which requires the attention of doctors and expectant mothers. ■ Prenatal screening test items for Down syndrome: Serological screening for Down syndrome. Prenatal screening for Down syndrome uses a relatively economical, simple, and non-invasive testing method to identify high-risk individuals in expectant mothers who are pregnant with a fetus with congenital syndrome. The incidence rate of congenital dementia is 1/1000 (newborns), which is one of the main causes of severe congenital intellectual disability. It is also possible for normal couples to have children with congenital dementia, and as the mother\’s age increases, the incidence rate also increases. increase in height. Understand the examination report for every expectant mother at 14 to 20 weeks in the second trimesterA negative report only indicates that the chance of the fetus having this congenital abnormality is very low and does not completely rule out this abnormality. The results of prenatal screening are expressed as risk rates. >1/275 is a positive screening and further examination (amniocentesis) is required. ■ Prenatal screening test items for TORCH syndrome: rubella virus (RV), Toxoplasma gondii (TOX), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies. If an expectant mother is infected with any of the above viruses before 4 months of pregnancy, the fetus may suffer from severe congenital malformations or even miscarriage. To understand the test report, it is best to conduct this test before preparing to become pregnant. Normally, it is negative. If the test is positive, you should undergo treatment before becoming pregnant. Expectant mothers who have pets at home should be checked even more. ■ Electrocardiogram examination items: electrocardiogram. Electrocardiogram reflects the electrical activity process of cardiac excitement. It has important reference value in the study of basic functions and pathology of the heart. Since the blood volume of pregnant women increases during pregnancy, the burden on the heart will also increase. Pregnancy electrocardiogram is a routine examination, mainly to see whether the heart has any disease and whether it can withstand the pregnancy. Under normal circumstances, the result is: normal electrocardiogram. If the electrocardiogram is abnormal, you need to consult a doctor promptly and conduct further examinations. ■ B-ultrasound examination inspection items: B-ultrasound. B-ultrasound is an examination that expectant mothers are very concerned about during pregnancy. Through B-ultrasound examination, you can see the fetal body, head, fetal heartbeat, placenta, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord, etc. It can detect whether the fetus is alive, whether it is a multiple fetus, and even identify whether the fetus is malformed (such as anencephaly, hydrocephalus, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, conjoined malformation, congenital heart disease, etc.). Under normal circumstances, we should be concerned about several fetal development measurement indicators, such as: biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length; in the third trimester, we should pay attention to the amniotic fluid index, placental position, umbilical cord Blood flow index and other indicators. Fetal heart rate Fetal heart rate, also known as \”fetal heart beat\”, refers to the number of times the fetal heart beats per minute. The normal range is 110~160 bpm. The presence of fetal heartbeat indicates that the fetus is alive. The normal fetal heart rate is 120~160 beats/min. If it is lower than or exceeds this range, it indicates that the fetus may be hypoxic in the womb. In the Placenta Grading (GP) B-ultrasound sheet, the location and maturity of the placenta attached to the uterus are generally described. Placental maturity is generally divided into Level IV: Level 0, Level I, Level II, Level III, and sometimes Level III+, which is used to evaluate the maturity of the placenta. The higher the level, the more mature the placenta is and the closer it is to term. The longest part of the biparietal diameter (BPD) from left to right is also called the major transverse diameter of the fetal head. It is measured as the longest part of the fetal head from left to right. Based on this, we can estimate the weight and development status of the fetus, determine whether there is cephalopelvic asymmetry, and whether delivery can be successful. Occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), the distance from the root of the nose to the occipital protuberance, is also called the anteroposterior diameter. It is also the longest part of the fetal head from front to back. This data is used to determine fetal development and gestational age. Femoral length (FL) The length of the thigh, also called femoral length, is the value of the longest part of the body. For use with BPD (large transverse diameter of fetal head)Let’s calculate the fetal weight together. Humeral length (HL) The length of the upper arm bone is usually used to calculate fetal weight. In fact, humeral length also has great reference value in monitoring fetal body development and body proportions. Head circumference (HC): The length of the circumference of the head is also called fetal head circumference. It is a value that measures the length of the head. Used to confirm the developmental status of the fetus. It can also help pregnant women choose the best delivery method when giving birth. Abdominal circumference (AC) The length of one week of the belly is also called the abdominal circumference. It is the measurement of the length of one week of the fetal belly. Used together with APTD (anterior and posterior trunk diameter) and TTD (trunk transverse diameter) to estimate fetal development. Umbilical Cord (Cord) Under normal circumstances, the umbilical cord should float in the amniotic fluid. If an image of the umbilical cord is seen on the fetal neck, it may be that the umbilical cord is wrapped around the neck. If the umbilical cord is wrapped around the neck on the B-ultrasound, V means it may be wrapped around the neck for one week, and w means it may be wrapped around the neck for two weeks. The fetus with the umbilical cord wrapped around the neck will be closely monitored during delivery. The umbilical cord blood flow ratio (A/B) refers to the blood flow in the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord is the only channel for gas exchange, nutrient supply, and metabolic product elimination between the mother and fetus. Its hemodynamic changes can reflect certain pathological changes in the placenta, fetus, and even the mother, as well as certain high-risk pregnancy factors. Fetal position (LOA, ROA, LOP…) refers to the posture and position of the fetus in the uterus. The fetal position is usually represented by three letters on the ultrasound report. The fetal position changes in the second trimester and is basically fixed in the third trimester. The normal fetal position is mostly occipitoanterior. If the abnormal fetal position is not corrected, it may cause dystocia during delivery. Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) During B-ultrasound examination, the umbilicus of the pregnant woman is taken as the center and divided into four areas: upper, lower, left and right. The amniotic fluid depths in the four areas are added up. The resulting value is the amniotic fluid index. In the third trimester of pregnancy, The normal range of amniotic fluid index is 8~25cm. Amniotic fluid thickness (AF) Under normal circumstances, the amniotic fluid area observed in B-ultrasound is low-density, so clinically, the maximum depth of amniotic fluid thickness is used to represent the deepest amount of amniotic fluid, and the normal range is 4~7cm. More than 7 centimeters means increased amniotic fluid, and less than 4 centimeters means decreased amniotic fluid, both of which are detrimental to fetal growth. ■ Vaginal discharge inspection items: cleanliness of leucorrhea, Candida and Trichomonas, and clue cells. Leucorrhea is a mixture of vaginal mucosal exudates, cervical canal and endometrial gland secretions. Understand the examination report. Under normal circumstances, the cleanliness level is I to II, and III to IV is abnormal leucorrhea, indicating vaginal inflammation. A positive test for Candida or Trichomonas indicates infection and requires corresponding treatment. The normal value is negative. Clue cells are the most sensitive and specific for bacterial vaginosis. Finding clue cells in vaginal secretions can make a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. If they are negative, it means it is normal. ■ Gestational diabetes screening test items: 75-gram glucose tolerance test This is a gestational diabetes screening test. It is performed between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Eat normally three days before the test, and fast for 12 hours from dinner on the day before the test to the morning of the test. Test steps: 1. Take 2 ml of venous blood on an empty stomach and send it to the test immediately. 2. 75 grams of glucose (dissolved in 200ml in water). 3. Complete the drink within 3 to 5 minutes. Record the time from the first sip. Draw 2 ml of venous blood half an hour, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours after drinking the sugar water, and send it immediately for examination. Some hospitals collect urine for testing (testing for urine sugar) every time they draw blood. Understand the examination report 1. Fasting blood sugar. Normal value range: ≤5.1mmol/L. 2. 1 hour blood sugar. Normal value range: ≤10.0mmol/L. 3. 2-hour blood sugar. Normal value range: ≤8.5mmol/L. Risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: Gestational diabetes can be diagnosed when any one of the above three values reaches or exceeds the critical value. Here, we would like to remind pregnant mothers not to be too nervous when they see the report results are different from the normal values. Because pregnancy is a special period, different body positions, differences in doctors\’ operations, etc. will cause errors in the numbers, and sometimes even large fluctuations. Therefore, abnormal numerical values on the report sheet do not mean that there must be problems with the baby\’s development. Remember to look for Consult your doctor clearly!