• Wed. Feb 21st, 2024

How to feed and daily care for newborns, treasure


Oct 1, 2023 #neonatal period

1. Feeding: Healthy newborns should have early contact and early sucking within 30 minutes, and suck milk every 3 hours or so. If the baby is hungry or the mother is engorged, suck milk at any time. If the baby sleeps for more than 3 hours, the baby should be woken up for breastfeeding. If breast milk is insufficient, use formula milk instead. Start adding complementary foods from 6 months after birth, and continue breastfeeding until 2 years old. Adding vitamin D: The key to preventing nutritional vitamin D deficiency rickets in babies lies in sunbathing and supplementing with an appropriate amount of vitamin D. After 1 month of birth, the baby can gradually continue to engage in outdoor activities. In winter, attention should also be paid to ensuring 1 to 2 hours of outdoor activity time per day. Studies have shown that allowing breastfed infants to play outdoors for 2 hours a week, with only the face and hands exposed, can maintain infant blood 25-(OH)D. Drug prevention: The vitamin D content in human milk is low. Premature infants, low birth weight infants, and twin fetuses should start supplementing with vitamin D 800IU/d 1 week after birth, and change the preventive dose after 3 months; full-term infants 2 weeks after birth Start supplementing vitamin D 400IU/d until 2 years old. In summer, when there is enough sunshine, you can do outdoor activities in the morning and evening, and pause or reduce the dosage of vitamin D. Generally, it is not necessary to take calcium supplements, but when dairy intake is insufficient and nutrition is poor, micronutrients and calcium supplements can be appropriately supplemented. Addition of vitamin A: A lactating mother can satisfy her needs with a reasonable diet. Depending on the situation, vitamin A 500-1000IU/d should be supplemented 10 days after birth. Newborn Baby Care Encyclopedia Download Ultra Clear epub Vitamin K Addition: The vitamin K content in human milk is also low. Wet mothers are encouraged to eat a reasonable diet and eat more fruits, vegetables, etc. Generally, newborns will receive intramuscular injections of vitamin K1 after birth. , to prevent bleeding caused by vitamin K deficiency. Other vitamin additions: Vitamin C, E and folic acid, add appropriately as appropriate. Iron supplement: It is recommended to add it under the guidance of a doctor. 2. Hiccups care: Hiccups in newborns are caused by spasms caused by stimulation of the diaphragm. When the body is cold, hiccups begin after feeding, or the newborn eats too fast and swallows too much air. Therefore, after feeding, please gently pick up the child, stroke the back, and pat it. Let the child breathe out the air and keep warm. In addition, if a newborn burps and smells an indigestible sour smell, it means that the baby has poor digestion or the hiccups are difficult to get rid of. It is best to see a doctor. 3. Stool observation: Newborns will pass dark green meconium after birth. If they eat normally, they will turn into yellow formed stools in 2 to 3 days. Some babies may pass several or more than ten times a day, each time in small amounts and pulpy. If they are energetic, Good, there is no obvious abdominal distension, and it does not affect appetite, sleep, growth and development. Generally, no special treatment is required. As the child grows older, the frequency of bowel movements will gradually decrease. After 2-3 months, the frequency of bowel movements will be reduced to 1-2 times a day. times; in addition, if the baby has more stools and farts more often, be aware that he may have swallowed too much air too quickly or accumulated gas in the intestines. After breastfeeding, you should hold the baby upright and pat the back gently to encourage swallowing. Inhaled air overflows from the mouth; if there is a large amount of watery stool, poor energy, appetite, abdominal distension, etc., you should see a doctor in time. A small number of babies only defecate once every few days, and their familiesDon’t panic. If there are no abnormalities in the baby’s body, just stick to the habit of defecating regularly every day. Hard stools are common in formula feeding. You can give the baby plenty of water and see a doctor if necessary. 4. Dressing and keeping warm: Generally speaking, babies should wear more clothes or wrap clothes than adults. It is enough to feel warm in the palm of the hand. The ideal body temperature should be maintained between 36.5°C and 37.3°C, not lower than 36°C and not higher than 36.5°C. 37.4℃, and add or remove clothing according to the body temperature. When necessary to keep warm in cold weather, use thermal insulation facilities, such as heaters and air conditioners, but be careful to avoid excessive thermal insulation. Try not to use personal thermos bottles and other thermal insulation items to avoid burns. Baby underwear (including diapers) should be mainly made of soft and absorbent cotton fabrics. It is best not to use chemical fiber or printed and dyed fabrics. The color of the clothes should be light to facilitate the detection of dirt and prevent dyes from irritating the newborn\’s skin. The clothes should be as light as possible. It is loose, does not hinder body movements, and is easy to put on and take off. Since the head of a newborn has a large amount of heat dissipation, a small hat should be worn when the climate is cold or the room temperature is low. It should also be soft and comfortable. 5. Bedroom requirements: Hot weather requires coolness and ventilation. If the bedroom is stuffy, you should move to a cool room or use an air conditioner to cool down. Generally, the air conditioner temperature is set at 26°C ~ 28°C and not exceed 30°C. When it is cold weather, you need to close the doors and windows every day. Open doors and windows for ventilation at least once in the morning and afternoon, for more than 30 minutes each time. If the weather is too cold, use air conditioning to keep warm if possible. The light in the room should not be too dark or too bright. It is best to turn off the lights when sleeping at night to allow the baby to adapt to the natural process of day and night. 6. Skin care: In summer, it is easy for bacteria to breed and even impetigo to occur, so newborns should pay attention to bathing frequently in summer. If your baby does not bathe frequently after sweating, he or she will easily develop prickly heat, and some may even develop eczema and rashes. Mothers should pay attention, especially to the baby\’s neck, thighs and arms, which have lots of flesh, and check and scrub them frequently. It is best to take a bath in cold weather with measures to keep warm. Soak the baby\’s body in the water and expose the baby\’s head to the water. The baby should be bathed quickly to avoid catching cold. Wash and dry the changed clothes in time. If it is a baby with impetigo, it is best to expose the clothes to the sun to achieve sterilization. 7. Eye secretion care: After birth, some babies will have a little light yellow secretion in the corner of their eyes, commonly known as \”eye droppings\”. Usually, it can be wiped with warm and moist soft gauze or cotton swabs. This is not a \”hot\” phenomenon often said in rural areas. If there is redness, swelling, purulent discharge, or even pus and blood-like material in the eyes, consider conjunctivitis. If tears and \”eye poop\” continue for a long time, you should go to the hospital in time. 8. Umbilical care: The umbilical cord will be taken off 3 to 7 days after birth. The umbilical cord may be wet, exudate, and bleed. It can be applied once or multiple times a day with 75% alcohol, especially after bathing. once, until the navel is dry. A small number of infected bacteria appear red and swollen, have purulent secretions, and even smell, indicating the occurrence of omphalitis. You can first clean the umbilicus with hydrogen peroxide, and then disinfect it with 75% alcohol. If there is no improvement after treatment, see a doctor in time. In some babies, a spherical or hemispherical mass can be seen in the umbilicus. This is an umbilical hernia, commonly known as \”air belly button\”. Most babies heal on their own between the ages of 1 and 2 years old. If your child has a navelIf your hernia keeps getting bigger or won\’t heal, see your doctor. 9. Buttocks care: Use soft and absorbent cotton fabrics for diapers, and wash and change them frequently. Usually, they need to be changed more than 4 times during the day and more than 2 times at night. The buttocks should be washed every time they are changed, and appropriate amount of skin care should be applied externally. oil; for diapers, choose ones with good quality and good air permeability. Try to use diapers when you are at home, and use \”diapers\” when going out or sleeping; note that the diapers or diapers should not be wrapped too tightly to facilitate the limbs. Stretch freely. Use skin cream when redness or erosion of buttocks occurs, and see a doctor if severe. 10. Sleeping posture and sleep: Sleeping posture affects breathing, and newborn heads are relatively soft. A good sleeping posture is conducive to the development of the head. It is recommended that: A comfortable, small pillow with a thickness of 1 to 2 centimeters, with a slight depression in the middle and slightly raised ends. The best sleeping position is to lie on your back or side to avoid compressing the chest and lungs. It is recommended to sleep on your side after feeding to avoid overflow. Breastfeeding or choking may cause suffocation; when in the supine position, positions should be changed frequently; full-term infants have strong mobility and can be placed prone in the first few days after birth to facilitate the outflow of respiratory secretions and prevent vomitus from flowing back into the trachea. , but you must take out the pillow when lying on your stomach and turn your head to one side. At this time, a parent must monitor you. Newborns usually sleep 18 to 20 hours a day, but babies under one month old should not sleep for a long time. Parents should sleep every 2 to 20 hours. Wake up once every 3 hours to facilitate feeding. When sleeping on your side, you need to be especially careful not to lean all the way to the left or to the right. You should sleep on your side alternately left and right to prevent head deformation. 11. If necessary, you can take vitamins and calcium under the guidance of a doctor Vitamins, calcium supplements, iron supplements: Due to reasons such as vigorous growth and development, premature birth, anemia, etc., babies should take vitamins, calcium supplements, iron supplements, etc. under the guidance of a doctor when necessary (see feeding). 12. Vaccinations: For the health of the baby, please Parents have noticed that the local epidemic prevention department carries out vaccinations on time. 13. Intramuscular injection of vitamin K1: Exclusively breastfed babies are prone to lack of vitamin K1 and may cause bleeding, such as intracranial hemorrhage and umbilical bleeding, so regular intramuscular injection of vitamin K1 is required. . 14. Prevention of infection: Babies have lower immunity than adults and are very susceptible to illness. Therefore, the number of visits to babies after birth should be reduced and avoid contact with sick people, especially family members with respiratory diseases. If the mother catches a cold and other respiratory diseases, the daily care of the baby is left to relatives. Mothers should wash their hands and wear masks when feeding to avoid cross-infection. 15. Perform newborn disease screening, hearing screening, and congenital heart disease screening as required: Important maternal and infant health care technology is an important measure to improve the quality of the country\’s population. It mainly detects some hidden diseases early and intervenes early to reduce the occurrence of disabilities.

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