Cervical cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the female reproductive tract. In the study of its causes, the medical community and scientists have taken many detours. It was initially thought that fungal infections and herpes virus infections were related to cervical cancer, but no evidence has been found. In textbooks in the past few years, early marriage, early childbearing, and multiple births were also listed as causes of cervical cancer.
1975German Cancer Center in Heidelberg A young man at the research center raised the question of whether human cervical cancer might be related to papillomavirus, considering that \”mare infected with papillomavirus are prone to genital tract tumors.\” He was the later famous Nobel Prize winner Professor H. zur Hausen . zur Hausen Shortly after the professor proposed this idea, he devoted his entire life to in this study. Diseases caused by papilloma viruses have long existed in human skin diseases. What we commonly call \”warts\” and \”warts\” in medicine are caused by papilloma viruses. But the papilloma virus that causes \”warts\” does not cause cervical cancer, nor does it cause cells in other parts of the body to become cancerous. Later research showed that there are many types of papillomaviruses in humans that can cause different diseases.
Papillomavirus cannot be cultured, but it can be passaged in cultured cells. After the birth of molecular biology, the use of molecular biology research methods brought the cause of cervical cancer into a golden age. Based on the differences in viral nucleic acid sequences, papillomaviruses whose nucleic acid sequences differ by 25% or more are regarded as new subtypes of papillomaviruses. Professor zur Hausen used molecular biology methods to identify many new human papilloma virus subtypes.type. As new subtypes become more and more common, the German Cancer Research Center established a \”Papillomavirus Reference Center.\” To date, more than 100 HPV subtypes have been discovered.
When we first studied the relationship between papillomavirus and cervical cancer, we used the method of detecting its protein, and later used DNAMolecular hybridization technology can remove viruses in tumor cellsDNA for positioning. It was found that human papilloma virus is almost present in the cancer cells of early-stage cervical cancer patients, especially in their precancerous cells. However, it is difficult to detect this virus in advanced tumor tissues; almost at the same time, human papilloma virus was found <span style=\"HPV line-height:1.5;\”>16/18subtype, which is the most carcinogenic and causes the most cervical cancer. Two fragments of their nucleic acid sequences encode proteins that have the ability to transform normal squamous epithelial cells into immortal cells. At the beginning of the 1990s90 line-height:1.5;\”>Evidence that HPVcauses cervical cancer, especially the molecular epidemiology, molecular biology and histopathology evidence of cervical cancer Mutual confirmation has led to the academic community recognizing human papilloma virus as the cause of cervical cancer. It is also the first time in medical history that a virus has been identified as the cause of cancer.
After determining the cause of cervical cancer, everyone concentrated their efforts to develop a vaccine to prevent HPV16/18 infection. This is why everyone is now familiar with the cervical cancer vaccine. It is not only suitable for those without The injection is given to sexually active women to prevent cervical cancer and is given to married women younger than 45 years of age. removeIn addition to cervical cancer, other cancers of the reproductive tract, such as vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, perianal cancer, penile cancer in men, and oral cancer in gay people, are also related to HPV infection. Therefore, by injecting the HPV vaccine, these cancers can be prevented. This is also the theoretical basis for recommending that boys be vaccinated against HPV.
There are two vaccines currently on the market to prevent cervical cancer, one is Merck(Merck)Quadrivalent vaccine produced by pharmaceutical factoryGardasil, not only can preventHPV16/18, and can also preventHPV6/11(The main subtype causing genital warts); The other is GlaxoSmithKline’s Cervarix, Can only preventHPV16/18 infection, commonly known as \”Bivalent vaccine\”. The two companies have applied to relevant domestic authorities to sell HPV vaccines in China. , according to the provisions of my country\’s \”Drug Administration Law\”, it is currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials test. Once the trials are over, these two vaccines to prevent cervical cancer will be available to the public.