How to prevent birth defects?

After pregnancy, many pregnant women will be particularly worried about the health of the fetus. Will there be developmental delay, fetal cessation, or fetal malformation? What is the Life Guide for Pregnant Women and Expectant Mothers PDF? For the health of the fetus, they will be cautious and give up all behaviors that are not conducive to the healthy development of the fetus, including their own dietary preferences. They will also have regular prenatal check-ups and will not miss any prenatal check-ups. However, fetal malformations still exist, harming the health of the fetus and leaving the entire family in grief. I have read a report before. During her pregnancy, Ms. Yang followed the doctor\’s requirements for prenatal check-ups, and also had various malformation tests. The tests showed that the fetus was healthy, but she gave birth to a baby with deformities. The baby\’s hands were syndactyly, the belt was deformed, and the right foot was clubbed. Varus deformity, syndactyly of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th toes on the right foot, and brachydactyly. It can be said to be a very serious appearance deformity. Seeing this, many friends will be particularly confused, why do fetal malformations occur so frequently, how to avoid them during pregnancy, and how to detect fetal malformations? Let’s answer them one by one below. What behaviors during pregnancy can cause fetal malformations? Fetal malformation refers to abnormalities in the internal structure of the embryo. The fetus cannot develop normally, and some structural defects occur. There are many reasons for the occurrence, which may be related to genetics. For example, the parents are closely related, or both parents have hereditary diseases; it may also be related to the pregnancy period. related to certain behaviors. The following 4 behaviors are harmful to the health of the fetus. Friends who are preparing for pregnancy or pregnant should pay more attention and avoid them in time! 1. Exposure to teratogenic substances During pregnancy, especially in the early pregnancy, pregnant women must stay away from teratogenic substances, because this is the embryonic period and the development period of fetal organs, and the fetus is particularly sensitive to teratogenic substances. In particular, radiation, polluted environment, private use of drugs, contaminated food, and chemical reagents, etc., will interfere with the development of the embryo and cause fetal malformations. 2. Unhealthy diet Throughout pregnancy, pregnant women need to eat a healthy diet to ensure that they have adequate and balanced nutrition. Only in this way can they meet the needs of the fetus and allow the fetus to develop healthily. However, some pregnant women may suffer from malnutrition, ranging from fetal growth retardation to fetal malformations, premature birth, miscarriage, etc. ① Folic acid deficiency and the risk of neural tube defects. Folic acid is an essential nutrient for fetal development. After pregnancy, a pregnant woman\’s demand for folic acid increases threefold. Her daily diet cannot meet this demand at all. She can only supplement folic acid tablets. If not supplemented in time, folic acid deficiency is likely to occur and increase the chance of fetal neural tube defects. ② Excessive calcium supplementation can lead to hypercalcemia. Fetal development during pregnancy requires sufficient calcium, but this calcium has a certain amount. If pregnant women take calcium supplements unscrupulously, resulting in too much calcium supplement, it is likely to cause hypercalcemia in the newborn, which is manifested by premature closure of the fontanel. Deformities such as widening and protrusion of the palatine bone, coarctation of the aorta, etc. In severe cases, mental retardation may also occur. ③ Magnesium deficiency in pregnant women increases the incidence of fetal mortality and congenital malformations. If pregnant women repeatedly vomit and have diarrhea for a long time, it may lead to insufficient magnesium intake. Once magnesium intake is insufficient, it will increase fetal mortality and the occurrence of congenital malformations. ④Lack of trace elements, leading to malformation of the central nervous system. Trace elements for pregnant women,It is also very important. If a pregnant woman is deficient in copper, it will cause fetal brain atrophy and bone deformation; if a pregnant woman is deficient in iodine in the early stages of pregnancy, it may lead to insufficient thyroid hormone synthesis, causing defects in the development of the nervous system. 3. High fever during pregnancy and infection. The embryo in early pregnancy is particularly afraid of high temperatures. If a pregnant woman has a high fever, or takes a sauna or a hot spring, exposing herself to a high temperature environment, it is likely to affect the healthy development of the embryo, leading to miscarriage or malformation; if the pregnant woman is exposed to Infections, such as Toxoplasma gondii infection, cytomegalovirus infection, rubella virus, etc., can also lead to fetal heart malformations and other malformations. In addition, pregnant women who smoke and drink alcohol will also increase the chance of fetal malformations. 4. Pregnant women’s emotional and physical conditions. Due to the secretion of progesterone after pregnancy, many pregnant women are in a bad mood, experiencing depression and irritability. A temporary bad mood has little impact on the fetus, but if they are in a bad mood for a long time, it will It affects the development of the fetus and increases the chance of fetal malformation; if a pregnant woman develops diabetes and her blood sugar is not well controlled, it may also lead to fetal development malformations, such as congenital megacolon, or ear development malformations, etc. How to prevent fetal malformations during pregnancy? 5 things to pay attention to! There are many causes of fetal malformations. If you want to prevent them, you must start from the period of pregnancy preparation. You need to do a physical examination before preparing for pregnancy. The couple should go to the hospital to check whether there are any abnormalities in the body. After confirming that there are no abnormalities in the body, they can then prepare for pregnancy. At the same time, you must avoid getting married among close relatives, eat healthily during pregnancy preparation, and stay away from tobacco and alcohol. In addition, you must also pay attention to the following points: 1. Eat a healthy diet and have a regular work and rest schedule. If pregnant women want to avoid the occurrence of fetal malformations, they need to pay attention to their daily life, eat a healthy diet, and have a regular work and rest schedule! Pregnant women need balanced and adequate nutrition. Pay attention to supplementing folic acid in the first trimester. In the second and third trimesters, adjust the diet to supplement nutrition according to the doctor\’s requirements. Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as high-quality protein foods, and eat less irritating foods and junk food. . At the same time, you must also pay attention to your work and rest habits, go to bed early and get up early, and ensure adequate sleep! 2. Supplement folic acid. You need to supplement folic acid in early pregnancy. Just take 1 tablet as required. Do not overdose! Pregnant women can also eat some foods rich in folic acid, such as spinach, etc., which can help supplement folic acid and prevent neural tube development defects. To supplement calcium appropriately during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, you can eat some calcium-rich foods, such as milk, milk powder for pregnant women, dried shrimps, etc., which are more conducive to the development of the fetus\’s teeth and bones, but be careful not to consume excessive calcium tablets. 3. Stay away from teratogenic substances. Pregnant women must stay away from teratogenic substances throughout pregnancy. Starting from the time of pregnancy preparation, do not soak in hot springs or saunas. Pay attention to your own health and avoid high fever. You cannot take medicines privately. You must also stay away from various radiation sources and various chemical reagents. Do not apply nail polish, dye or perm your hair, or use makeup for a long time, especially if it is a newly renovated house or a new car. Do not use it in a hurry. At the same time, you must stay away from tobacco, alcohol, and second-hand smoke! 4. Maintain a happy mood and try to relax yourself as much as possible. Don\’t let yourself be too depressed, and don\’t get angry or cry often. These negative emotions will affect the health of the fetus. As family members, we should be more considerate and accompany pregnant women more to help them get through this difficult process. 5.Stay away from high-decibel noise. The fetus\’s hearing has developed around the fifth month of pregnancy and can hear the pregnant woman\’s heartbeat and external sounds. Pregnant women need to stay away from places with high decibel noise, such as construction sites, discos, dance halls, etc. , otherwise these noises will affect the rest and development of the fetus, and even damage the fetus\’ hearing, leading to hearing loss. Fetal malformations during pregnancy, how to detect them early? In many cases, fetal malformations are unavoidable, but they can be discovered in advance, especially some serious malformations, which can be diagnosed and treated in advance to reduce the birth of malformed children, reduce neonatal mortality and harm to the family. There are many tests for fetal malformations, such as the earliest NT test, mid-trimester Down syndrome test, non-invasive DNA, amniocentesis, and major malformation tests. These tests can detect different aspects of fetal malformations. 1. NT examination NT examination is a method to evaluate whether the fetus may have Down syndrome by scanning the thickness of the zona pellucida behind the fetal neck through B-ultrasound. The best time for examination is 11-13 weeks + 6 days of pregnancy. It is the earliest abnormality examination. In addition to detecting Tang screen syndrome, it can also detect other abnormalities in the fetus, such as anencephaly, etc. Once fetal malformations are discovered, they can be detected as soon as possible. End pregnancy and reduce harm to pregnant women. 2. Down syndrome test Down syndrome test is the abbreviation of prenatal screening test for Down syndrome. The best time for the test is between 16 and 18 weeks of pregnancy. It mainly tests the blood of pregnant women to determine the risk of the fetus suffering from Down syndrome. Under normal circumstances, pregnant women under 34 years old need to undergo Down syndrome screening; if pregnant women are over 34 years old, or have Down syndrome patients in their families, or have given birth to children with Down syndrome, they are high-risk groups and need to undergo non-invasive screening directly. DNA or amniocentesis. 3. Non-invasive DNA Non-invasive DNA mainly extracts fetal cell-free DNA fragments from the venous blood of pregnant women, and then detects the risk of the fetus suffering from chromosomal aneuploidy diseases. The best time for examination is from 12 weeks to 22 weeks + 6 days of pregnancy. The accuracy is as high as 99% and there is no risk. 4. Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is a diagnostic method that detects whether the fetus is malformed by extracting amniotic fluid from pregnant women. The best time for examination is between 16 and 20 weeks of pregnancy. However, if problems with the fetus are found after 20 weeks of pregnancy, amniocentesis can also be performed, but it is risky. It is mainly used for pregnant women who fail non-invasive DNA or Down syndrome screening, as well as some elderly mothers, or pregnant women who have given birth to children with chromosomal abnormalities, or who have been exposed to toxic substances or radiation during pregnancy. 5. Four-dimensional color ultrasound Four-dimensional color ultrasound is a type of examination for major abnormalities. The best time for examination is between 20 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. In addition to the general color ultrasound function, it can also perform three-dimensional imaging of the fetal head and face, clearly displaying the status of the eyes, nose, mouth, chin, etc., and can diagnose fetal congenital malformations, including fetal surface malformations, visceral malformations, and craniofacial malformations, and can confirm fetal Observe dynamic images of the fetus at a precise location in the uterus. Finally, the chance of fetal malformation has continued to increase in recent years. Pregnant women must pay more attention. In addition to the issues that must be paid attention to during pregnancy, you must also have regular prenatal check-ups!

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