Please ask Doudehui: Symptoms and treatment methods of influenza in children

Definition of influenza: Influenza, referred to as influenza, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by influenza viruses. Influenza can cause upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonia and various diseases outside the respiratory tract. Typical influenza is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, body pain, significant fatigue, flushed face, congestion of the outer canthus of the eye conjunctiva, congestion of the pharynx, follicles on the soft palate, and mild respiratory symptoms. The causes and epidemic characteristics of influenza: The pathogens are influenza viruses A, B, and C. The incubation period is 1 to 3 days, and symptoms such as sneezing and coughing may occur depending on the virus. Influenza is more contagious than the common cold (cold syndrome) and is more widely contagious. Symptoms of influenza: diarrhea, vomiting, fever, etc. that are more severe than those of a common cold. As long as someone in the family is infected, they will infect each other, so when it is serious, the school will stop classes. Epidemics are likely to occur in late autumn, early spring and cold winter when the weather is changeable, so it is called \”influenza\”. If you are infected with the flu, you may experience fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache, and muscle aches. Some children experience vomiting and diarrhea. Fever will be accompanied by chills and sudden high fever above 39°C. Although similar to a common cold, the symptoms are more severe than a common cold, and the initial symptoms are not a runny nose and cough, but a sudden high fever. Children with severe respiratory disease require hospitalization and may be fatal. In infants and young children, it will initially start with gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea, and then gradually develop a fever, so it cannot be distinguished from a common cold. Some babies may have high fever that lasts for 3 to 4 days, or cause febrile convulsions. Complications of influenza: Infection with influenza can affect the nose, throat, ears, bronchi, lungs and other parts of the body. Infections in infants and young children often affect the lower respiratory tract, especially those complicated by pneumonia. Pneumonia can be caused by influenza virus or secondary bacterial infection, mostly caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococcus, and Streptococcus. Age of onset of influenza: There is no specific age group for influenza. Since the mother may not have antibodies, the baby cannot obtain immunity from the mother and cannot effectively fight the virus. Therefore, babies who are just born may also be infected. The influenza virus you are infected with varies depending on the time of the epidemic, so even if you have been infected. You will be infected again next time. You may be infected 2 to 3 times in one winter, or even every year. Home management of influenza: If your baby gets the flu, the most important thing is to be quiet and rest. Taking care of it at home is basically the same as taking care of a regular cold. Don\’t make the room too dry. You can use a humidifier or hanging towels to improve the environment, while keeping the room temperature at 20℃~25℃. When your baby has a fever. You should pay attention to keeping warm and let your baby wear an extra piece of clothing. When the body temperature drops, the body will not feel cold and will sweat. At this time, do not let the baby get too hot and help the baby change clothes. To prevent dehydration, drink more fluids. You can eat weaning foods or foods that are easy to digest. If your baby can\’t eat it, don\’t force it. Remember to replenish your baby with plenty of water. You can use warm boiled water, warm milk, rice soup, etc. You can also give your baby fresh fruit juice, etc., and feed it in small amounts multiple times.When your baby shows symptoms such as \”barely able to drink water\”, \”exhausted\”, \”urinate less\”, etc., he may be dehydrated and needs to go to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment. If dehydration occurs, fluids should be given to replenish fluids. Avoid using aspirin-based antipyretics. Since the human body uses fever to fight viruses and treat diseases, antipyretics are designed to lower body temperature, which can be said to be the opposite reaction to the body\’s reaction. But it is also very troublesome if your energy is consumed due to fever. When a persistent high fever persists, causing the baby to be unable to sleep or eat, the use of antipyretic drugs may make the body feel more comfortable. In addition, if the body temperature drops by 0.5°C after using antipyretics for half an hour, it means it is effective. If the baby does not dislike it, you can also give him a cold compress on his armpits or groin. Special reminder: Pay attention to the type of antipyretic drugs and do not give antipyretics to your baby at will. Do not use aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) or aspirin-containing products (such as bismuth subsalicylate, also known as bismuth subsalicylate) on babies with confirmed or suspected influenza or chickenpox infection. This may cause a A rare and serious disease – Reye\’s syndrome. If Reye\’s syndrome is severe, it may be life-threatening. When you suddenly have a fever in the middle of the night and cannot go to the hospital immediately, you can use antipyretics that are generally available on the market, but you must confirm the ingredients of the antipyretics. Never use aspirin series antipyretics, but use acetyl acetate. Aminophenol (also called paracetamol) or ibuprofen series antipyretics. Family members should also do their best to avoid catching the flu. The baby\’s living area is limited and he mainly comes into contact with family members. Therefore, the most important thing to prevent the baby from being infected with the flu is that no one in the family is infected. In addition, when parents come back from outside, they must remember to wash their hands first and not be too tired. During the dry period in winter, a certain indoor humidity must be maintained. If someone in the family is infected with the flu, they must be isolated from the baby. During a cold epidemic, try to avoid taking your baby to crowded places. On the other hand, occasionally suffering from the flu can also increase the baby\’s immunity. However, because the symptoms of flu are more serious and can easily cause complications, the baby should still try to avoid being infected. Recommendations for treating influenza: Pay attention to complications if your baby continues to have high fever. When you have fever, diarrhea, vomiting and other symptoms similar to those of a common cold, in principle, you should go to a pediatrician for diagnosis and treatment. If anyone in your home is infected with the flu at this time, let your doctor know. The latest medical technology uses cotton swabs to collect nasal secretions for examination, which can quickly diagnose whether you are infected with influenza. However, there are cases where the test results are negative within a few hours of developing a fever. Like a common cold, you can use antipyretics and cough suppressants to relieve severe symptoms. When symptoms are severe, antibiotics are sometimes given to prevent bacterial infection. But recently, treatments have become available that can fight the virus. Because influenza can easily cause complications, such as acute encephalitis, you should go to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment when the high fever is between 39°C and 40°C for one day. Influenza vaccination: Since the introduction of influenza vaccine, it has played a role in reducing the incidence of influenza.It has a certain effect, but it is not ideal in controlling the epidemic. Both serum and local antibodies increase after vaccination. The protection period is from half a year to one year, and the domestic reported incidence rate can be reduced by 50% to 70%. Vaccines need to be refrigerated or desiccated. Fever and respiratory symptoms may occur after vaccination, which are generally mild. At present, it is relatively certain that amantadine and Tamiflu have a preventive effect on influenza A, but are ineffective against influenza B. The Chinese herbs Guanzhong, Daqingye, Isatis root, Lithospermum, and Honeysuckle are also considered useful for prevention. Tips: What are immunity and resistance? The human body has an \”immune\” system to protect itself, which eliminates and attacks foreign matter entering the body from the outside world. The immune system is a partner of white blood cells (lymphocytes, etc.) in the blood. White blood cells are located throughout the blood vessels throughout the body, moving in and out of the blood vessels, guarding every corner of the body. When a pathogen invades, it will immediately arrive and attack the pathogen. There are two methods of attack. One is that white blood cells directly attack the pathogen; the other is to produce protective \”antibodies\” and use them to attack the pathogen. \”Inflammation\” is their battlefield, and the results of the battle are redness, swelling, discharge, pustules, etc. The so-called \”antibodies\” for protection are specialized antibodies produced according to different pathogens, such as antibodies specifically used to fight rubella virus and antibodies specifically used to fight measles virus. Therefore, after an antibody is completed, when the next pathogen invades, in order to prevent the body from being infected with the disease, it must produce new antibodies as soon as possible to fight the pathogen. However, in newborn babies, the functions of immune cells are not yet perfect and they do not yet have the ability to produce antibodies. Therefore, when pathogens invade the body, the pathogens are relatively strong and the baby will easily get sick. However, after several illnesses, the function of the immune system gradually improves, and the body begins to have resistance and can fight against diseases. In addition, the baby gets the mother\’s antibodies through the placenta and drinking breast milk. Therefore, if the mother has had measles and mumps, the baby will have this type of antibody and will not get the disease before 6 months after birth. But after 6 months of life, when the antibodies obtained from the mother gradually decrease, the child becomes susceptible to infection again.

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