It’s spring again when all things grow. The temperature is warming up, the frozen ice is melting, and all things are resurrected, along with bacteria and viruses. I heard from friends that the pediatric hospital has been overcrowded recently, and every parent in the hospital has a worried look on their face. As the temperature rises, various bacteria and viruses are easy to spread, so it is very important to take preventive measures. Everyone should be on guard against these diseases that are easy to become popular in spring. Influenza is a crowded time in pediatric departments every year in February and March. In the spring when the temperature is suddenly warm but then cold, children with weak resistance are prone to respiratory infections, such as influenza. Influenza, referred to as the flu, is a disease caused by a respiratory viral infection. It is highly contagious and has a high incidence rate, and can easily cause outbreaks or pandemics. It is mainly spread through droplets containing the virus. It can also be spread through person-to-person contact or contact with contaminated items. Influenza symptoms: Most children infected with the flu will get better after 3-7 days. It usually takes 1-2 weeks to recover from coughing and physical strength. The symptoms of the flu itself are generally: 1. Sudden onset of fever: usually 3 to 3 days of fever. In 5 days, the body temperature can reach as high as 39-40℃. 2. Chills and shivering: Children may be afraid of the cold, have chills, and have cold hands and feet. 3. Headaches, body aches, and children easily feel tired. 4. Sore throat: Older children will complain that their throats are dry, itchy, and painful, while younger children will cry or be afraid of eating, especially solid food. 5. Dry cough: Paroxysmal cough, mostly dry cough. 6. Nasal congestion and runny nose: Children will rub their noses, sneeze, and have a runny nose. If there is not much nasal discharge, it will easily become \”booger\”; children with nasal congestion may manifest themselves as crying, snoring, mouth breathing, or snoring. . 7. Many babies may also have tears, eye mucus or bloodshot eyes. Some children may also experience vomiting and diarrhea. How to prevent influenza: Avoid the source of infection and cut off the infection route to effectively prevent influenza. 1. Influenza vaccination is an effective method during the period of high influenza incidence. Infants and young children over 6 months old who are repeatedly infected with influenza viruses can receive a flu vaccine once a year. 2. Maintain a healthy diet, eat more foods rich in vitamin C, exercise more, and enhance resistance. 3. Develop the habit of washing hands frequently to reduce the invasion of bacteria and viruses. 4. During the flu season, try to take your baby to activities in crowded places as little as possible. 5. Maintain indoor ventilation at ordinary times; if your child develops flu or flu-like symptoms such as runny nose, cough, fever, sore throat, etc., he should go to the hospital for diagnosis in time. Norovirus: I recently saw news that in a kindergarten in Shanghai, more than 80 children suffered from vomiting and diarrhea due to infection with norovirus, resulting in 12 classes being held together! body! stop! class! Got it! The period of high incidence of norovirus is from November to April every year. Norovirus is what we often call \”gastrointestinal cold\” or \”gastrointestinal cold\”. It is a self-limiting disease that usually comes and goes quickly. It\’s fast. The incubation period of viral infection is usually 24-48 hours, with the shortest being 12 hours and the longest being 72 hours. Symptoms of norovirus infection include vomiting and diarrheahost. Most babies may vomit, and the vomitus is mostly food, and some babies may be mixed with bile; they may have abdominal pain, the frequency of stools increases, and the stools are mostly watery stools with less mucus and a few white blood cells; some babies There may also be fever, which usually lasts for 2-3 days. How to prevent norovirus Norovirus is highly contagious and is mainly transmitted through the intestines. It can be spread through contaminated water sources, food, objects, air, etc. To avoid being infected with norovirus, it is best to do the following: 1. Supervise your baby to wash hands carefully before meals, after using the toilet, and after returning from going out. 2. Pay attention to cleaning the toys, stationery and daily necessities that the baby comes into contact with, and wash the food before eating. 3. Open windows for ventilation, do more outdoor activities, and try to avoid going to crowded public places. 4. Drink plenty of water and try not to eat fresh food and undercooked food when eating. 5. When sneezing, cover your mouth with a handkerchief or elbow instead of your hands. 6. Ensure your baby sleeps and has a good rest. 7. If someone at home is infected with norovirus and after vomiting or diarrhea, the vomitus and contaminated areas should be cleaned and disinfected promptly, and contaminated clothing should be washed thoroughly to avoid the spread of the virus. Hand, foot and mouth disease Hand, foot and mouth disease is another disease that likes to pester children. This disease mostly affects preschool children. Mothers of babies under 5 years old should especially pay attention. Hand, foot and mouth disease is an enterovirus infection (EV71), a viral infectious disease caused by enteroviruses. It can cause herpes on hands, feet, mouth and other parts of the body, and a few children can cause complications such as myocarditis, pulmonary edema, and aseptic meningoencephalitis. April to May is the period of high incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease, and in some areas it is most common from May to September. The incubation period is 2-7 days, 2 weeks after symptoms appear or 1 week after all symptoms disappear. Symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease in the early stages: the main symptom is fever, with body temperature generally between 38°C and 39°C, accompanied by pain in the corners of the mouth, sore throat, drooling, and reluctance to eat, which are very similar to upper respiratory tract infections. 1-2 days later: Red spots may appear on the baby\’s hands, feet, buttocks, cheeks, tongue, inner lips, etc. The spots gradually develop into herpes. After the herpes ruptures, ulcers form and the pain is abnormal. Therefore, babies suffering from hand, foot and mouth disease often suffer from mouth pain, which affects feeding and eating, and they cry uneasily. After 3-4 days, most children\’s herpes can subside on its own without leaving scabs or scaling. Those without complications can be cured in about a week, and the prognosis is good; a very small number of children will suffer damage to the respiratory system and central nervous system, causing myocarditis, pulmonary edema, pallid pulmonary paralysis, viral encephalitis, viral cerebrospinal meningitis, etc. . The condition of some severely ill children progresses rapidly and may lead to death. How to Prevent Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Transmission is mainly through fecal-oral or respiratory droplets. It can also be infected through contact with the patient\’s skin and mucous membrane herpes fluid, such as patient feces, herpes fluid, respiratory secretions and contaminated daily necessities. The method to prevent hand, foot and mouth disease is very simple. Remember these 15 words: wash your hands, drink boiled water, eat cooked food, ventilate frequently, and dry under the quilt. 1. Wash your baby\’s hands carefully and carefully with soap and hand sanitizer before meals, after going to the toilet, and after going out; 2. Do not let your baby drink raw water or eat raw or cold food.Leftover rice, leftovers, etc.; 3. Pay attention to the reasonable combination of nutrition, let the baby have a good rest, and get proper exposure to the sun to enhance its own immunity. 4. Keep the home environment hygienic and ventilate the room frequently, preferably twice a day for 30 minutes each time; 5. Wash, dry (dry) and disinfect all the clothes and quilts of family members frequently, especially those of the baby. , supplies, etc.; 6. Clean the refrigerator in time and place the refrigerator items in separate bags; 7. Breastfeeding mothers should bathe frequently and wash nipples and hands before feeding; 8. Wash hands before touching the baby, changing the baby\’s diaper, and after handling feces. And dispose of the dirt properly; 9. If the baby has relevant symptoms, he should go to a medical institution in time. 10. It is best to do a morning physical examination in kindergarten. If a child with fever or rash is found, he should go to the hospital immediately for diagnosis. 11. Sick children should be at home. Treatment, it is not advisable to continue going to school to avoid infection. Mumps Mumps, referred to as mumps, commonly known as \”mumps\”, is caused by the mumps virus and is very contagious. It usually affects preschool and school-age children. Children under 2 years old are less likely to be infected. It occurs in winter and spring. More. Mumps virus is generally transmitted through direct contact, droplets, and saliva inhalation. Children will become ill 2-3 weeks after contact with a patient. Mumps Symptoms If children are infected with the mumps virus, the onset of symptoms is generally acute, accompanied by fever, chills, headache, myalgia, sore throat, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, general malaise, and other symptoms. Within hours, the parotid gland becomes swollen and painful, and the pain gradually becomes obvious or even red, and the body temperature can reach above 39°C. In severe cases, children may be complicated by viral encephalitis, orchitis, pancreatitis and oophoritis. Parotid gland swelling mostly reaches its peak in 3-5 days, gradually disappears in 7-10 days, and the entire course of the disease is 10-14 days. How to prevent mumps Mumps is contagious and is mainly transmitted through direct contact with patients, and inhalation of droplets and saliva. The ways to prevent this disease are: 1. Like influenza, it can be prevented by vaccination. According to national regulations, when the child is 18 months old, parents need to take the child to receive the triple live attenuated vaccine against measles, rubella and mumps. This vaccine has a relatively high protection rate. 2. Pay attention to your baby\’s personal hygiene at ordinary times. 3. During the period of high disease incidence, try to go as little as possible to places where people gather. 4. If someone is sick in a kindergarten or elementary school, try to have as little contact with the patient as possible. 5 Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is an allergic reaction to the environment. Spring is here, and willows and poplars are blooming one after another. Babies who are allergic to pollen are prone to allergic rhinitis. If your child has a runny nose, itchy, red, and swollen eyes, but no other symptoms of a cold or infection, your child may have infectious rhinitis. The most common allergens that cause hay fever are cold air, pollen, dust mites, fungi, and animal dander. Symptoms of allergic rhinitis 1. Sneezing, nasal congestion, itchy nose and runny nose (usually clear nose) 2. Watery eyes, itchy, red or edematous eyes 3. Cough 4. Rough skin on the bridge of the nose due to frequent nose wiping 5. Nosebleed 6. Shadows under the eyes 7. Breathing through the mouth due to nasal congestion 8. The child is tired and not in good spirits 9. PartialChildren may suffer from otitis media, sinusitis, or eye diseases caused by allergies. How to prevent allergic rhinitis. From a medical point of view, three conditions need to be met to cause allergic rhinitis: 1. Specific antigens are substances that cause the body’s immune response. (Allergens such as pollen); 2. Atopic individuals are the so-called individual differences and allergic constitutions; 3. Specific antigens and atopic individuals meet. Therefore, as long as any one condition is cut off, the occurrence of this disease can be prevented. 1. Prevent your baby from coming into contact with allergens such as dust, mites, fungi, etc., and maintain family hygiene. 2. During the season when pollen, willow catkins, and poplar catkins are flying, take your baby out as little as possible. 3. You can wear an anti-pollen mask for your baby when you go out. Avoid allergies 4. Take more activities, develop a good habit of washing your face and hands with cold water, and improve the body\’s adaptability and resistance to external climate changes. Scarlet Fever Scarlet fever is an acute rash respiratory infectious disease caused by Group A B-hemolytic Streptococcus. It is also called sore throat and mostly occurs in winter and spring. Anyone can get sick at any age, but children ages 2 to 8 are most susceptible. Symptoms of scarlet fever: People suffering from scarlet fever usually experience fever, angina, diffuse scarlet rash all over the body, and skin scaling after the rash subsides. Scarlet fever starts quickly. The sick baby will be afraid of the cold and have a fever. In mild cases, the fever can reach 38°C to 39°C, and in severe cases, it can reach 39°C to 40°C. It may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, red and swollen tonsils or purulent effusion. Passage, sore throat, especially when swallowing. There is generally a fever course of nearly 1 day before the rash occurs. The rash will mostly appear on the neck, armpits, groin, etc. first, and will spread throughout the body within 24 hours. Scarlet fever is a small red, congested rash that feels a bit like The surface of common sandpaper. 3-4 days after the rash occurs, the sick baby\’s tongue coating peels off and the tongue papilla becomes red and swollen, which looks like bright red bayberry, so it is called \”bayberry tongue\”. These are special symptoms of scarlet fever. How to prevent scarlet fever Scarlet fever is very contagious and is mainly spread through air droplets or indirect spread through contact with contaminated daily necessities. Therefore, to prevent this disease, you need to pay attention to personal hygiene, stay away from sick people, and strengthen your own immunity. To sum up, the most consistent way to prevent these spring epidemics is to maintain your baby\’s personal hygiene and wash hands frequently to stay away from bacteria; improve your diet, supplement more nutritious foods, do more exercise, and improve your own immunity; during the period of high disease incidence , avoid going to crowded places to avoid infection. If it can be prevented by vaccination, get vaccinated if possible. In the spring when everything revives, I hope every baby will be healthy.