Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) refers to abnormal glucose metabolism that occurs during pregnancy and is clearly related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Common ones include fetal congenital malformations, fetal macrosomia, cesarean section delivery, premature birth, preeclampsia, etc. Moreover, the risk of maternal and fetal metabolic syndrome increases after sugar mothers give birth. With the continuous adjustment of my country\’s fertility policy and the increase in elderly pregnant women, gestational diabetes has become one of the common complications during pregnancy. High-risk factors for gestational diabetes include race and maternal factors, such as advanced age, overweight or obesity before pregnancy, excessive gestational weight gain, polycystic ovary syndrome, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, history of macrosomia, and multiple pregnancies History, pregnancy-induced hypertension, etc. 01 Diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes For most pregnant women, except for occasional increases in thirst and urination frequency, gestational diabetes does not cause more symptoms, so it may be difficult to detect blood sugar without measuring blood sugar. Found out I had gestational diabetes. According to the standards set by the American Diabetes Association in 2020, gestational diabetes can be diagnosed as long as fasting blood glucose ≥5.1mmol/L or 1-hour postprandial blood glucose ≥10.0mmol/L or 2-hour postprandial blood glucose ≥8.5mmol/L. The goals for blood sugar control during pregnancy are even more stringent. Fasting blood sugar should be <5.3mmol/L, blood sugar 1 hour after a meal should be less than 7.8mmol/L, and blood sugar 2 hours after a meal should be <6.7mmol/L. 02 Effects of gestational diabetes on mother and child Harm to pregnant women: Recent effects: The incidence of miscarriage in pregnant women with gestational diabetes is higher than that in normal pregnant women, the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome is 4-8 times higher than that in normal pregnant women, polyhydramnios The incidence rate is 10 times that of normal pregnant women, and the incidence rate of premature birth is as high as 10%-25%. Secondly, the fetuses of pregnant women with gestational diabetes generally develop larger, which can easily cause fetal dystocia and soft birth canal damage, and increase the risk of surgical delivery. Gestational diabetes often causes uterine atony, prolonged labor and postpartum hemorrhage. In addition, pregnant women with gestational diabetes may develop ketoacidosis and often develop bacterial or fungal infections. Long-term impact: About 50% of pregnant women with gestational diabetes may eventually become type 2 diabetes patients. When pregnant again, the recurrence rate is as high as 33%-56%. Harm to fetus and newborn: Short-term impact: When pregnant women suffer from gestational diabetes, the incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia increases significantly, and the incidence of macrosomia is as high as 25%-42%. The incidence of fetal malformations is 5%-10%, which is about 2-6 times that of normal pregnant women, and often multiple malformations. The incidence of fetal growth and development restriction reaches 21%. In addition, stillbirth, congenital malformations, neonatal hyperinsulinemia, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, etc. may occur when symptoms such as vascular disease, poor blood sugar control, polyhydramnios, macrosomia, or preeclampsia occur simultaneously. Long-term impact: If a mother suffers from gestational diabetes, her baby\'s risk of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and other metabolic syndromes will also increase significantly in adulthood. 03How to prevent gestational diabetes? Prevention of gestational diabetes includes diet, exercise; inositol, vitaminVitamin D supplementation may play a certain role in the prevention of gestational diabetes. Diet and lifestyle before and during pregnancy are associated with the risk of gestational diabetes. However, there are certain differences in the research conclusions on the role of diet and exercise intervention in the prevention of gestational diabetes. A 2020 meta-analysis showed that diet or exercise management alone has no clear benefits or harms in preventing gestational diabetes, while combined diet and exercise management may have certain benefits in preventing gestational diabetes; inositol or vitamin D Supplementation may have certain benefits in preventing gestational diabetes; metformin has a certain effect in preventing gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Studies have found that patients with gestational diabetes have increased myo-inositol oxidase activity, which leads to the decomposition of Myo-inositol. The urinary Myo-inositol excretion rate increases by 2.9 times in the first trimester and 5.5 times in the third trimester. If inositol supplementation is given to people or patients at high risk of gestational diabetes, the risk of the disease can be reduced by about 60% and the need for insulin treatment or medication dosage can be reduced. Another meta-analysis showed that low vitamin D levels during pregnancy significantly increased the risk of gestational diabetes. CCTV recommends over 500 high-scoring excellent documentaries. Children will become addicted after watching the pattern. In addition, unhealthy eating patterns related to gestational diabetes include excessive consumption of sugary drinks, fried foods, animal fats, refined grains, candies, and French fries. and pizza; in contrast, a healthy eating pattern includes green leafy vegetables, poultry, fish, the Mediterranean diet, and nuts and dietary fiber. Regarding exercise management, Chinese scholars have conducted research on preventing gestational diabetes in overweight and obese pregnant women. Regular moderate-intensity cycling exercise starting early in pregnancy is safe and can significantly reduce the risk of gestational diabetes in overweight and obese pregnant women by nearly 50%. Prospective cohort studies indicate that not smoking, eating a healthy diet, and engaging in moderate-to-vigorous exercise for ≥150 minutes per week can reduce the occurrence of gestational diabetes by 41%. Therefore, it is recommended that pregnant women adopt a correct and healthy lifestyle before and during pregnancy to prevent the occurrence of gestational diabetes to the greatest extent.